Bone Markings

Palpated Bone Markings

Activity no. 1

The angle of the mandible is felt at the posterior, inferior end of the mandible (jawbone) whose angle begins at the posterior corner of the body of the mandible and inclines superiorly and posteriorly ending just anterior to the ear.  Directly superior to this point is the mandibular ramus whose anterior aspect, the coronoid process, extends anteriorly and  superior and ultimately deep to the zygomatic arch.   Following  the zygomatic arch posteriorly it becomes the zygomatic process which extends posteriorly deep to the ear.  Directly posterior to the ear we find the mastoid process a rounded knob which the most inferior papable aspect on the skull in this coronal plane.


Activity no. 2

Beginning at the base of the skull, the occipital bone, on the most sagittal, inferior, posterior aspect, palpating an inch or two  inferiorly we feel the first spinous process, and can continue palpating each successive vertebrae’s spinous process along the medial aspect of the back/spine.


Activity no. 3

On the anterior of the model we find the prominent clavicle and laterally from its median aspect palpate directly inferior to it and find the 2nd rib, which can be palpated medially to the sternum, and laterally disappears from touch behind the pectoral.  The 2nd rib attaches inferior to the manubrium at the sternal angle, the beginning of the sternum body. The success ribs can be felt and counted as we move inferiorly along the sternum until the 7th rib which attaches to the xiphoid process.   The remaining 5 ribs, false ribs, I found successfully by palpating superiorly along the spine from the hip until finding the 12th rib, and most inferior, and counting superiorly.


Activity no. 4

The prominent clavicle can be found by first palpating inferiorly from the median of the mandible into the jugular notch and then laterally following the clavicle to the superior lateral aspect of the shoulder which is the acromion of the scaplula. Rotating over the shoulder to the posterior we can feel inferior and medial of the acromion of the scaplula the spine of the scapula which runs transversely and medially and ends lateral of the spine.  Here we can palpate inferiorly the medial border of the scapula.   At its most inferior point we find the inferior angle where the edge of the scapula begins its lateral border which rises superiorly and laterally towards the shoulder.


Activity no.5

Returning to the acromiom we palpate slightly anterior and inferior to find the greater tubercle of the humerus, which can be differentiated by having the model extend the arm.  The lateral epicondyle can be found as a bony protrusion on the lateral aspect of the elbow and the medial epicondyle as the same but on the medial aspect.  These can be differentiated from the radius and ulna by having the model flex and extend the antebrachial, the forearm.   The olecranon process of the ulna can be found with the elbow flexed at the ulnas proximal end as the point of the elbow.  The head of the radius is lateral from the olecranon process and is a smaller rounder protrusion.  The styloid process of the radius is found at the distal end of the forearm and can be found easily by flexing the wrist in the anatomical position.  The styloid process of the ulna can be found by rotating the forearm 180 degrees and is now a prominent protrusion on the distal end of the wrist, medial aspect.


Activity no. 6

The iliac crest is the most lateral and superior aspect of the hip, and the most prominent protrubence.  The anterior superior iliac spine is the point felt at the anterior of the crest and is slightly inferior and medial to it.  The ischial tuberosity is on the posterior and very inferior aspect of the hip and is the reason I don’t like people sitting on my lap.


Activity no. 7

Intermediate to the ischial tuberosity and the anterior superior iliac spine and superior to the former and inferior to the latter can be found the greater trochanter of the femur.  It can be differentiated by slightly flexing and extending the thigh.  In a relaxed seated position the patella is the point of the knee and is a loose independent bone with a flat top and edges that angle medially and inferiorly.  Inferior to the patella is a bony protrusion, the tibial tuberosity.  The tibial tuberosity is found intermediate to the lateral and medial condyles of the tibia found on their respective aspects of the proximal end of the leg. On the lateral aspect of the leg inferior to the lateral condyle of the tibia is the head of the fibula.  It is differentiated by a slight depression separating these two markings.  At the distal end of the leg the media malleous and the lateral malleous are found protruding superior to the foot, commonly referred to as the “ankle bones”

anterior bone markings

posterior view scapula brachii

leg bone markings

lateral view ribs brachii


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